APG IV系统

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APG IV系统是由APG(“被子植物系统发育研究组”的英文Angiosperm Phylogeny Group的缩写)建立的被子植物分类系统的第四版,是一个基本建立在分子系统发育研究的现代被子植物分类系统。APG IV系统于2016年发表,是在最早的APG系统发表(1998年)的18年后,以及APG III系统发表(2009年)的7年后。[1]不过早在2009年,这一系统的顺序排列版本即已单独发表;[2]2016年论文中也包括了这个顺序排列,并引证了2009年的论文。[1]

与APG III系统相比,APG IV系统承认了5个新,即紫草目(Boraginales)、五桠果目(Dilleniales)、茶茱萸目(Icacinales)、水螅花目(Metteniusales)和黄漆姑目(Vahliales);此外还承认了几个新。整个系统因此共有64个目,416个科。[1]APG IV系统的作者称他们建立这一系统的方法论总体是“保守的”,除非有公认的需求,否则就不打算对APG III系统做出修改。因为这种处理方式,APG IV有时会与发表的研究成果相互冲突,但这些研究成果也需要进一步的研究支持,才能作为修改系统的依据。[3]

简版

  1. 分支angiosperms
    grade ANA
    Amborellales
    Nymphaeales
    Austrobaileyales
    分支Mesangiosperms
    分支Magnoliids
    Canellales
    Laurales
    Magnoliales
    Piperales
    independent lineage: unplaced to more inclusive clade
    Chloranthales
    分支Monocots
    Acorales
    Alismatales
    Arecales
    Asparagales
    Commelinales
    Dioscoreales
    Liliales
    Pandanales
    Petrosaviales
    Poales
    Zingiberales
    probable sister of eudicots
    Ceratophyllales
    分支eudicots
    Buxales
    Proteales
    Ranunculales
    Trochodendrales
    core eudicots
    Dilleniales
    Gunnerales
    分支superrosids
    Saxifragales
    分支rosids
    Vitales
    分支fabids
    Cucurbitales
    Fabales
    Fagales
    Rosales
    Zygophyllales
    COM clade; fabids or malvids?
    Celastrales
    Malpighiales
    Oxalidales
    分支malvids
    Brassicales
    Crossosomatales
    Geraniales
    Huerteales
    Malvales
    Myrtales
    Picramniales
    Sapindales
    分支superasterids
    Berberidopsidales
    Caryophyllales
    Santalales
    分支asterids
    Cornales
    Ericales
    分支lamiids
    Icacinales
    Metteniusales
    Garryales
    Gentianales
    Boraginales
    Vahliales
    Solanales
    Lamiales
    分支campanulids
    Apiales
    Aquifoliales
    Asterales
    Bruniales
    Dipsacales
    Escalloniales
    Paracryphiales

Detailed version

Key to symbols used:

* = the family has been added or its circumscription changed since the APG III system of 2009
† = the has been added since the APG III system

Basal angiosperms

  1. Amborellales Melikyan et al.
    1. Amborellaceae Pichon, nom. cons.
  2. Nymphaeales Salisb. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Hydatellaceae U.Hamann
    2. Cabombaceae Rich. ex A.Rich., nom. cons.
    3. Nymphaeaceae Salisb., nom. cons.
  3. Austrobaileyales Takht. ex Reveal
    1. Austrobaileyaceae Croizat, nom. cons.
    2. Trimeniaceae Gibbs, nom. cons.
    3. Schisandraceae Blume, nom. cons.

Magnoliids

  1. Canellales Cronq.
    1. Canellaceae Mart., nom. cons.
    2. Winteraceae R.Br. ex Lindl., nom. cons.
  2. Piperales Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Saururaceae Rich. ex T.Lestib., nom. cons.
    2. Piperaceae Giseke, nom. cons.
    3. Aristolochiaceae Juss., nom. cons. * (including Asaraceae Vent., Hydnoraceae C.Agardh, nom. cons., Lactoridaceae Engl., nom. cons.)
  3. Magnoliales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Myristicaceae R.Br., nom. cons.
    2. Magnoliaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    3. Degeneriaceae I.W.Bailey & A.C.Sm., nom. cons.
    4. Himantandraceae Diels, nom. cons.
    5. Eupomatiaceae Orb., nom. cons.
    6. Annonaceae Juss., nom. cons.
  4. Laurales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Calycanthaceae Lindl., nom. cons.
    2. Siparunaceae Schodde
    3. Gomortegaceae Reiche, nom. cons.
    4. Atherospermataceae R.Br.
    5. Hernandiaceae Blume, nom. cons.
    6. Monimiaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    7. Lauraceae Juss., nom. cons.

Independent lineage: unplaced to more inclusive clade

  1. Chloranthales Mart.
    1. Chloranthaceae R.Br. ex Sims, nom. cons.

Monocots

  1. Acorales Mart.
    1. Acoraceae Martinov
  2. Alismatales R.Br. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Araceae Juss., nom. cons.
    2. Tofieldiaceae Takht.
    3. Alismataceae Vent., nom. cons.
    4. Butomaceae Mirb., nom. cons.
    5. Hydrocharitaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    6. Scheuchzeriaceae F.Rudolphi, nom. cons.
    7. Aponogetonaceae Planch., nom. cons.
    8. Juncaginaceae Rich., nom. cons. *
    9. Maundiaceae Nakai *
    10. Zosteraceae Dumort., nom. cons.
    11. Potamogetonaceae Bercht. & J.Presl, nom. cons
    12. Posidoniaceae Vines, nom. cons.
    13. Ruppiaceae Horan., nom. cons.
    14. Cymodoceaceae Vines, nom. cons.
  3. Petrosaviales Takht.
    1. Petrosaviaceae Hutch., nom. cons.
  4. Dioscoreales Mart.
    1. Nartheciaceae Fr. ex Bjurzon
    2. Burmanniaceae Blume, nom. cons. (not monophyletic.)
    3. Dioscoreaceae R.Br., nom. cons.
  5. Pandanales R.Br. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Triuridaceae Gardner, nom. cons.
    2. Velloziaceae J.Agardh, nom. cons.
    3. Stemonaceae Caruel, nom. cons.
    4. Cyclanthaceae Poit. ex A.Rich., nom. cons.
    5. Pandanaceae R.Br., nom. cons.
  6. Liliales Perleb
    1. Campynemataceae Dumort.
    2. Corsiaceae Becc., nom. cons.
    3. Melanthiaceae Batsch ex Borkh., nom. cons.
    4. Petermanniaceae Hutch, nom. cons.
    5. Alstroemeriaceae Dumort., nom. cons.
    6. Colchicaceae DC., nom. cons.
    7. Philesiaceae Dumort., nom. cons.
    8. Ripogonaceae Conran & Clifford
    9. Smilacaceae Vent., nom. cons.
    10. Liliaceae Juss., nom. cons.
  7. Asparagales Link
    1. Orchidaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    2. Boryaceae M.W.Chase et al.
    3. Blandfordiaceae R.Dahlgren & Clifford
    4. Asteliaceae Dumort.
    5. Lanariaceae H.Huber ex R.Dahlgren
    6. Hypoxidaceae R.Br., nom. cons.
    7. Doryanthaceae R.Dahlgren & Clifford
    8. Ixioliriaceae Nakai (as 'Ixiolirionaceae'; spelling corrected)
    9. Tecophilaeaceae Leyb., nom. cons.
    10. Iridaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    11. Xeronemataceae M.W.Chase et al.
    12. Asphodelaceae Juss., nom. cons. prop. (including Xanthorrhoeaceae Dumort., nom. cons.)
    13. Amaryllidaceae J.St.-Hil., nom. cons.
    14. Asparagaceae Juss., nom. cons.
  8. Arecales Bromhead
    1. Dasypogonaceae Dumort.
    2. Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl, nom. cons. (=Palmae Juss., nom. cons.)
  9. Commelinales Mirb. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Hanguanaceae Airy Shaw
    2. Commelinaceae Mirb., nom. cons.
    3. Philydraceae Link, nom. cons.
    4. Pontederiaceae Kunth, nom. cons.
    5. Haemodoraceae R.Br., nom. cons.
  10. Zingiberales Griseb.
    1. Strelitziaceae Hutch., nom. cons.
    2. Lowiaceae Ridl., nom. cons.
    3. Heliconiaceae Vines
    4. Musaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    5. Cannaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    6. Marantaceae R.Br., nom. cons.
    7. Costaceae Nakai
    8. Zingiberaceae Martinov, nom. cons.
  11. Poales Small
    1. Typhaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    2. Bromeliaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    3. Rapateaceae Dumort., nom. cons.
    4. Xyridaceae C.Agardh, nom. cons.
    5. Eriocaulaceae Martinov, nom. cons.
    6. Mayacaceae Kunth, nom. cons.
    7. Thurniaceae Engl., nom. cons.
    8. Juncaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    9. Cyperaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    10. Restionaceae R.Br., nom. cons. * (including Anarthriaceae D.W.Cutler & Airy Shaw, Centrolepidaceae Endl., nom. cons.)
    11. Flagellariaceae Dumort., nom. cons.
    12. Joinvilleaceae Toml. & A.C.Sm.
    13. Ecdeiocoleaceae D.W.Cutler & Airy Shaw
    14. Poaceae Barnhart, nom. cons. (= Gramineae Juss., nom. cons.)

Probable sister of eudicots

  1. Ceratophyllales Link
    1. Ceratophyllaceae Gray, nom. cons.

Eudicots

  1. Ranunculales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Eupteleaceae K.Wilh., nom. cons.
    2. Papaveraceae Juss., nom. cons.
    3. Circaeasteraceae Hutch., nom. cons.
    4. Lardizabalaceae R.Br., nom. cons.
    5. Menispermaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    6. Berberidaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    7. Ranunculaceae Juss., nom. cons.
  2. Proteales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Sabiaceae Blume, nom. cons.
    2. Nelumbonaceae A.Rich., nom. cons.
    3. Platanaceae T.Lestib., nom. cons.
    4. Proteaceae Juss., nom. cons.
  3. Trochodendrales Takht. ex Cronq.
    1. Trochodendraceae Eichler, nom. cons.
  4. Buxales Takht. ex Reveal
    1. Buxaceae Dumort., nom. cons. * (including Haptanthaceae C.Nelson)

Core eudicots

  1. Gunnerales Takht. ex Reveal
    1. Myrothamnaceae Nied., nom. cons.
    2. Gunneraceae Meisn., nom. cons.
  2. Dilleniales DC. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Dilleniaceae Salisb., nom. cons.

Superrosids

  1. Saxifragales Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Peridiscaceae Kuhlm., nom. cons.
    2. Paeoniaceae Raf., nom. cons.
    3. Altingiaceae Lindl., nom. cons.
    4. Hamamelidaceae R.Br., nom. cons.
    5. Cercidiphyllaceae Engl., nom. cons.
    6. Daphniphyllaceae Mu€ll.Arg., nom. cons.
    7. Iteaceae J.Agardh, nom. cons.
    8. Grossulariaceae DC., nom. cons.
    9. Saxifragaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    10. Crassulaceae J.St.-Hil., nom. cons.
    11. Aphanopetalaceae Doweld
    12. Tetracarpaeaceae Nakai
    13. Penthoraceae Rydb. ex Britton, nom. cons.
    14. Haloragaceae R.Br., nom. cons.
    15. Cynomoriaceae Endl. ex Lindl., nom. cons.

Rosids

  1. Vitales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Vitaceae Juss., nom. cons.
  2. Zygophyllales Link
    1. Krameriaceae Dumort., nom. cons.
    2. Zygophyllaceae R.Br., nom. cons.
  3. Fabales Bromhead
    1. Quillajaceae D.Don
    2. Fabaceae Lindl., nom. cons. (= Leguminosae Juss., nom. cons.)
    3. Surianaceae Arn., nom. cons.
    4. Polygalaceae Hoffmanns. & Link, nom. cons.
  4. Rosales Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Rosaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    2. Barbeyaceae Rendle, nom. cons.
    3. Dirachmaceae Hutch.
    4. Elaeagnaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    5. Rhamnaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    6. Ulmaceae Mirb., nom. cons.
    7. Cannabaceae Martinov, nom. cons.
    8. Moraceae Gaudich., nom. cons.
    9. Urticaceae Juss., nom. cons.
  5. Fagales Engl.
    1. Nothofagaceae Kuprian.
    2. Fagaceae Dumort., nom. cons.
    3. Myricaceae Rich. ex Kunth, nom. cons.
    4. Juglandaceae DC. ex Perleb, nom. cons.
    5. Casuarinaceae R.Br., nom. cons.
    6. Ticodendraceae Gomez-Laur. & L.D.Gomez
    7. Betulaceae Gray, nom. cons.
  6. Cucurbitales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Apodanthaceae Tiegh. ex Takht. *
    2. Anisophylleaceae Ridl.
    3. Corynocarpaceae Engl., nom. cons.
    4. Coriariaceae DC., nom. cons.
    5. Cucurbitaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    6. Tetramelaceae Airy Shaw
    7. Datiscaceae Dumort., nom. cons.
    8. Begoniaceae C.Agardh, nom. cons.

COM clade; placement uncertain

  1. Celastrales Link
    1. Lepidobotryaceae J.L eonard, nom. cons.
    2. Celastraceae R.Br., nom. cons.
  2. Oxalidales Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Huaceae A.Chev.
    2. Connaraceae R.Br., nom. cons.
    3. Oxalidaceae R.Br., nom. cons.
    4. Cunoniaceae R.Br., nom. cons.
    5. Elaeocarpaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    6. Cephalotaceae Dumort., nom. cons.
    7. Brunelliaceae Engl., nom. cons.
  3. Malpighiales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Pandaceae Engl. & Gilg, nom. cons.
    2. Irvingiaceae Exell & Mendonc"a, nom. cons. * (including Allantospermum Forman)
    3. Ctenolophonaceae Exell & Mendonc"a
    4. Rhizophoraceae Pers., nom. cons.
    5. Erythroxylaceae Kunth, nom. cons.
    6. Ochnaceae DC., nom. cons.
    7. Bonnetiaceae L.Beauvis. ex Nakai
    8. Clusiaceae Lindl., nom. cons. (= Guttiferae Juss., nom. cons.)
    9. Calophyllaceae J.Agardh
    10. Podostemaceae Rich. ex Kunth, nom. cons.
    11. Hypericaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    12. Caryocaraceae Voigt, nom. cons.
    13. Lophopyxidaceae H.Pfeiff.
    14. Putranjivaceae Meisn.
    15. Centroplacaceae Doweld & Reveal
    16. Elatinaceae Dumort., nom. cons.
    17. Malpighiaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    18. Balanopaceae Benth. & Hook.f., nom. cons.
    19. Trigoniaceae A.Juss., nom. cons.
    20. Dichapetalaceae Baill., nom. cons.
    21. Euphroniaceae Marc.-Berti
    22. Chrysobalanaceae R.Br., nom. cons.
    23. Humiriaceae A.Juss., nom. cons.
    24. Achariaceae Harms, nom. cons.
    25. Violaceae Batsch, nom. cons.
    26. Goupiaceae Miers
    27. Passifloraceae Juss. ex Roussel, nom. cons.
    28. Lacistemataceae Mart., nom. cons.
    29. Salicaceae Mirb., nom. cons.
    30. Peraceae Klotzsch *
    31. Rafflesiaceae Dumort., nom. cons.
    32. Euphorbiaceae Juss., nom. cons. *
    33. Linaceae DC. ex Perleb, nom. cons.
    34. Ixonanthaceae Planch. ex Miq., nom. cons. *
    35. Picrodendraceae Small, nom. cons.
    36. Phyllanthaceae Martinov, nom. cons.

Rosids continued

  1. Geraniales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Geraniaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    2. Francoaceae A.Juss., nom. cons. * (including Bersamaceae Doweld, Greyiaceae Hutch., nom. cons., Ledocarpaceae Meyen, Melianthaceae Horan., nom. cons., Rhynchothecaceae A.Juss., Vivianiaceae Klotzsch, nom. cons.)
  2. Myrtales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Combretaceae R.Br., nom. cons.
    2. Lythraceae J.St.-Hil., nom. cons.
    3. Onagraceae Juss., nom. cons.
    4. Vochysiaceae A.St.-Hil., nom. cons.
    5. Myrtaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    6. Melastomataceae Juss., nom. cons.
    7. Crypteroniaceae A.DC., nom. cons.
    8. Alzateaceae S.A.Graham
    9. Penaeaceae Sweet ex Guill., nom. cons.
  3. Crossosomatales Takht. ex Reveal
    1. Aphloiaceae Takht.
    2. Geissolomataceae A.DC., nom. cons.
    3. Strasburgeriaceae Tiegh., nom. cons.
    4. Staphyleaceae Martinov, nom. cons.
    5. Guamatelaceae S.H.Oh & D.Potter
    6. Stachyuraceae J.Agardh, nom. cons.
    7. Crossosomataceae Engl., nom. cons.
  4. Picramniales Doweld
    1. Picramniaceae Fernando & Quinn
  5. Huerteales Doweld
    1. Gerrardinaceae M.H.Alford
    2. Petenaeaceae Christenh. et al. *
    3. Tapisciaceae Takht.
    4. Dipentodontaceae Merr., nom. cons.
  6. Sapindales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Biebersteiniaceae Schnizl.
    2. Nitrariaceae Lindl.
    3. Kirkiaceae Takht.
    4. Burseraceae Kunth, nom. cons.
    5. Anacardiaceae R.Br., nom. cons.
    6. Sapindaceae Juss., nom. cons. (including Xanthocerataceae Buerki et al., as 'Xanthoceraceae')
    7. Rutaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    8. Simaroubaceae DC., nom. cons.
    9. Meliaceae Juss., nom. cons.
  7. Malvales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Cytinaceae A.Rich.
    2. Muntingiaceae C.Bayer et al.
    3. Neuradaceae Kostel., nom. cons.
    4. Malvaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    5. Sphaerosepalaceae Bullock
    6. Thymelaeaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    7. Bixaceae Kunth, nom. cons.
    8. Cistaceae Juss., nom. cons. * (including Pakaraimaea Maguire & P.S.Ashton)
    9. Sarcolaenaceae Caruel, nom. cons.
    10. Dipterocarpaceae Blume, nom. cons. *
  8. Brassicales Bromhead
    1. Akaniaceae Stapf, nom. cons.
    2. Tropaeolaceae Juss. ex DC., nom. cons.
    3. Moringaceae Martinov, nom. cons.
    4. Caricaceae Dumort., nom. cons.
    5. Limnanthaceae R.Br., nom. cons.
    6. Setchellanthaceae Iltis
    7. Koeberliniaceae Engl., nom. cons.
    8. Bataceae Mart. ex Perleb, nom. cons.
    9. Salvadoraceae Lindl., nom. cons.
    10. Emblingiaceae Airy Shaw
    11. Tovariaceae Pax, nom. cons.
    12. Pentadiplandraceae Hutch. & Dalziel
    13. Gyrostemonaceae A.Juss., nom. cons.
    14. Resedaceae Martinov, nom. cons. * (including Borthwickiaceae J.X.Su et al., Stixidaceae Doweld as 'Stixaceae', Forchhammeria Liebm.)
    15. Capparaceae Juss., nom. cons. *
    16. Cleomaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    17. Brassicaceae Burnett, nom. cons. (= Cruciferae Juss., nom. cons.)

Superasterids

  1. Berberidopsidales Doweld
    1. Aextoxicaceae Engl. & Gilg, nom. cons.
    2. Berberidopsidaceae Takht.
    3. Olacaceae R.Br., nom. cons. (not monophyletic; including Aptandraceae Miers, Coulaceae Tiegh., Erythropalaceae Planch. ex Miq., nom. cons., Octoknemaceae Soler. nom. cons., Strombosiaceae Tiegh., Ximeniaceae Horan.)
  2. Santalales R.Br. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Opiliaceae Valeton, nom. cons.
    2. Balanophoraceae Rich., nom. cons.
    3. Santalaceae R.Br., nom. cons. (not monophyletic if Balanophoraceae are embedded; including Amphorogynaceae Nickrent & Der, Cervantesiaceae Nickrent & Der, Comandraceae Nickrent & Der, Nanodeaceae Nickrent & Der, Thesiaceae Vest, Viscaceae Batsch)
    4. Misodendraceae J.Agardh, nom. cons.
    5. Schoepfiaceae Blume
    6. Loranthaceae Juss., nom. cons.
  3. Caryophyllales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Frankeniaceae Desv., nom. cons.
    2. Tamaricaceae Link, nom. cons.
    3. Plumbaginaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    4. Polygonaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    5. Droseraceae Salisb., nom. cons.
    6. Nepenthaceae Dumort, nom. cons.
    7. Drosophyllaceae Chrtek et al.
    8. Dioncophyllaceae Airy Shaw, nom. cons.
    9. Ancistrocladaceae Planch. ex Walp., nom. cons.
    10. Rhabdodendraceae Prance
    11. Simmondsiaceae Tiegh.
    12. Physenaceae Takht.
    13. Asteropeiaceae Takht. ex Reveal & Hoogland
    14. Macarthuriaceae Christenh. *
    15. Microteaceae Schäferhoff & Borsch *
    16. Caryophyllaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    17. Achatocarpaceae Heimerl, nom. cons.
    18. Amaranthaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    19. Stegnospermataceae Nakai
    20. Limeaceae Shipunov ex Reveal *
    21. Lophiocarpaceae Doweld & Reveal
    22. Kewaceae Christenh. *
    23. Barbeuiaceae Nakai
    24. Gisekiaceae Nakai
    25. Aizoaceae Martinov, nom. cons.
    26. Phytolaccaceae R.Br., nom. cons. *
    27. Petiveriaceae C.Agardh * (including Rivinaceae C.Agardh)
    28. Sarcobataceae Behnke
    29. Nyctaginaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    30. Molluginaceae Bartl., nom. cons. *
    31. Montiaceae Raf.
    32. Didiereaceae Radlk., nom. cons.
    33. Basellaceae Raf., nom. cons.
    34. Halophytaceae S.Soriano
    35. Talinaceae Doweld
    36. Portulacaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    37. Anacampserotaceae Eggli & Nyffeler
    38. Cactaceae Juss., nom. cons.

Asterids

  1. Cornales Link
    1. Nyssaceae Juss. ex Dumort., nom. cons.
    2. Hydrostachyaceae Engl., nom. cons.
    3. Hydrangeaceae Dumort., nom. cons.
    4. Loasaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    5. Curtisiaceae Takht.
    6. Grubbiaceae Endl. ex Meisn., nom. cons.
    7. Cornaceae Bercht. & J.Presl, nom. cons.
  2. Ericales Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Balsaminaceae A.Rich., nom. cons.
    2. Marcgraviaceae Bercht. & J.Presl, nom. cons.
    3. Tetrameristaceae Hutch.
    4. Fouquieriaceae DC., nom. cons.
    5. Polemoniaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    6. Lecythidaceae A.Rich., nom. cons.
    7. Sladeniaceae Airy Shaw
    8. Pentaphylacaceae Engl., nom. cons.
    9. Sapotaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    10. Ebenaceae Gu€rke, nom. cons.
    11. Primulaceae Batsch ex Borkh., nom. cons.
    12. Theaceae Mirb., nom. cons.
    13. Symplocaceae Desf., nom. cons.
    14. Diapensiaceae Lindl., nom. cons.
    15. Styracaceae DC. & Spreng., nom. cons.
    16. Sarraceniaceae Dumort., nom. cons.
    17. Roridulaceae Martinov, nom. cons.
    18. Actinidiaceae Gilg & Werderm., nom. cons.
    19. Clethraceae Klotzsch, nom. cons.
    20. Cyrillaceae Lindl., nom. cons.
    21. Ericaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    22. Mitrastemonaceae Makino, nom. cons. (placement in unclear)
  3. Icacinales Tiegh.
    1. Oncothecaceae Kobuski ex Airy Shaw
    2. Icacinaceae Miers, nom. cons. *
  4. Metteniusales Takht.
    1. Metteniusaceae H.Karst. ex Schnizl. *
  5. Garryales Mart.
    1. Eucommiaceae Engl., nom. cons.
    2. Garryaceae Lindl., nom. cons.
  6. Gentianales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Rubiaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    2. Gentianaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    3. Loganiaceae R.Br. ex Mart., nom. cons.
    4. Gelsemiaceae L.Struwe & V.A.Albert * (including Pteleocarpaceae Brummitt)
    5. Apocynaceae Juss., nom. cons.
  7. Boraginales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Boraginaceae Juss., nom. cons. (including Codonaceae Weigend & Hilger)
  8. Vahliales Doweld
    1. Vahliaceae Dandy
  9. Solanales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Convolvulaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    2. Solanaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    3. Montiniaceae Nakai, nom. cons.
    4. Sphenocleaceae T.Baskerv., nom. cons.
    5. Hydroleaceae R.Br.
  10. Lamiales Bromhead
    1. Plocospermataceae Hutch.
    2. Carlemanniaceae Airy Shaw
    3. Oleaceae Hoffmanns. & Link, nom. cons.
    4. Tetrachondraceae Wettst.
    5. Calceolariaceae Olmstead
    6. Gesneriaceae Rich. & Juss., nom. cons. * (the position of Peltanthera Benth. is problematic and here considered unplaced to family)
    7. Plantaginaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    8. Scrophulariaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    9. Stilbaceae Kunth, nom. cons.
    10. Linderniaceae Borsch et al.
    11. Byblidaceae Domin, nom. cons.
    12. Martyniaceae Horan., nom. cons.
    13. Pedaliaceae R.Br., nom. cons.
    14. Acanthaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    15. Bignoniaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    16. Lentibulariaceae Rich., nom. cons.
    17. Schlegeliaceae Reveal
    18. Thomandersiaceae Sreem.
    19. Verbenaceae J.St.Hil., nom. cons.
    20. Lamiaceae Martinov, nom. cons. (= Labiatae Juss., nom. cons.)
    21. Mazaceae Reveal
    22. Phrymaceae Schauer, nom. cons. *
    23. Paulowniaceae Nakai
    24. Orobanchaceae Vent., nom. cons. * (including Lindenbergiaceae Doweld, Rehmanniaceae Reveal)
  11. Aquifoliales Senft
    1. Stemonuraceae Kårehed
    2. Cardiopteridaceae Blume, nom. cons.
    3. Phyllonomaceae Small
    4. Helwingiaceae Decne.
    5. Aquifoliaceae Bercht. & J.Presl, nom. cons.
  12. Asterales Link
    1. Rousseaceae DC.
    2. Campanulaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    3. Pentaphragmataceae J.Agardh, nom. cons.
    4. Stylidiaceae R.Br., nom. cons.
    5. Alseuosmiaceae Airy Shaw
    6. Phellinaceae Takht.
    7. Argophyllaceae Takht.
    8. Menyanthaceae Dumort., nom. cons.
    9. Goodeniaceae R.Br., nom. cons.
    10. Calyceraceae R.Br. ex Rich., nom. cons.
    11. Asteraceae Bercht. & J.Presl, nom. cons. (= Compositae Giseke, nom. cons.)
  13. Escalloniales Link
    1. Escalloniaceae R.Br. ex Dumort., nom. cons.
  14. Bruniales Dumort.
    1. Columelliaceae D.Don, nom. cons.
    2. Bruniaceae R.Br. ex DC., nom. cons.
  15. Paracryphiales Takht. ex Reveal
    1. Paracryphiaceae Airy Shaw
  16. Dipsacales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Adoxaceae E.Mey., nom. cons. (= Viburnaceae Raf., nom. cons. prop.)
    2. Caprifoliaceae Juss., nom. cons.
  17. Apiales Nakai
    1. Pennantiaceae J.Agardh
    2. Torricelliaceae Hu
    3. Griseliniaceae Takht., nom. cons. prop.
    4. Pittosporaceae R.Br., nom. cons.
    5. Araliaceae Juss., nom. cons.
    6. Myodocarpaceae Doweld
    7. Apiaceae Lindl., nom. cons. (= Umbelliferae Juss., nom. cons.)

Phylogeny

Like the earlier APG systems, the APG IV revision is based on a phylogenetic tree for the angiosperms, as shown below.[4] 模板:分支

模板:分支

模板:分支

模板:分支

模板:分支

References

Bibliography

模板:List of systems of plant taxonomy